A visit of Ancient Greek and Roman cultures in Turkey

7:52 PM, Sunday, October 30th, 2011
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Ancient Greek and Roman culturesAnthaliya : Turkey, known officially as the Republic of Turkey is a Eurasian country that stretches across the Anatolian peninsula in Western Asia and Thrace in the Balkan region of southeastern Europe.

Ephesus was an ancient Greek city, and later a major Roman city, on the west coast of Asia Minor, near present-day Selïuk, Izmir Province, Turkey. It was one of the twelve cities of the Ionian League during the Classical Greek era. In the Roman period, it was for many years the second largest city of the Roman Empire; ranking behind Rome, the empireirs capital. Ephesus had a population of more than 250,000 in the 1st century BC, which also made it the second largest city in the world.  Today, the ruins of Ephesus are a major tourist attraction, especially for travelers on Mediterranean cruises.

Ancient Greek and Roman culturesThe city was famed for the Temple of Artemis (completed around 550 BC), one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The temple was destroyed in 401 AD by a mob led by St. John Chrysostom. The town was again partially destroyed by an earthquake in 614 AD.  Ephesus is also a sacred site for Christians due to its association with several biblical figures, including St. Paul, St. John the Evangelist and the Virgin Mary.

Ephesus was one of the seven churches of Asia that are cited in the Book of Revelation. The Gospel of John may have been written here. The city was the site of several 5th century Christian Councils. It is also the site of a large gladiatorsït graveyard.  Ephesus represents so many different facets of Ancient Greek and Roman cultures.

Ancient Greek and Roman cultures Pamukkale, meaning  cotton castle  in Turkish, is a natural site in Denizli Province in southwestern Turkey. The city contains hot springs and travertines, terraces of carbonate minerals left by the flowing water. It is located in Turkeyïs Inner Aegean region, in the River Menderes valley, which has a temperate climate for most of the year.

Pamukkale, an unusual natural and historical site with the sparkling white castle -like cascades, Pamukkale is one of the most important highlights of Turkey, unique in the world. The dazzling white calcareous castles are formed by limestone-laden thermal springs, creating the unbelievable formation of stalactites, potholes and cataracts.

Ancient Greek and Roman culturesPamukkale has been a spa since the Romans built the spa city of Hierapolis around a sacred warm-water spring. The Sacred Pool is still there, littered with marble columns from the Roman Temple of Apollo. You can swim in it for a fee.Tourism is and has been a major industry. People have bathed in its pools for thousands of years. As recently as the mid-20th century, hotels were built over the ruins of Heropolis, causing considerable damage.
 
Cappadocia which is unique in the world and is a miraculous nature wonder is the common name of the field covered by the provinces of Aksaray, Nevsehir, Nigde, Kayseri and Kirsehir in the Central Anatolian region.

Wind and rain have eroded the brittle volcanic rock and formed rock cones, capped pinnacles and fretted ravines in colors that range from warm reds and golds to cool greens and grays. In the Valley of the Fairy Chimneys huge boulders balance precariously atop spindly cones of volcanic tuff. The most famous sight in the region, G�reme National Park, is one of those rare places where the works of humans blend unobtrusively into natural surroundings; labyrinthine underground cities like Derinkuyu and Kaymakli were carved into soft volcanic stone over 1,000 years ago. The otherworldly beauty of the Cappadocian landscape makes it an excellent place for walks and horseback rides.

Ancient Greek and Roman culturesThe name was traditionally used in Christian sources throughout history and is still widely used as an international tourism concept to define a region of exceptional natural wonders, in particular characterized by fairy chimneys and a unique historical and cultural heritage. The term, as used in tourism, roughly corresponds to present-day Nevşehir Province.

 Nemrut or Nemrud  is a 2,134 m (7,001 ft) high mountain in southeastern Turkey, notable for the summit where a number of large statues is erected around what is assumed to be a royal tomb from the 1st century BCE.

The mountain lies 40 km (25 mi) north of Kahta, near Adıyaman. In 62 BC, King Antiochus I Theos of Commagene built on the mountain top a tomb-sanctuary flanked by huge statues (8�9 m/26�30 ft high) of himself, two lions, two eagles and various Greek, Armenian, and Iranian gods, such as Hercules-Vahagn, Zeus-Aramazd or Oromasdes, Tyche, and Apollo-Mithras. These statues were once seated, with names of each god inscribed on them. The heads of the statues have at some stage been removed from their bodies, and they are now scattered throughout the site.

The main event is the summit of Mount Nemrut. In the west is the �throne of the gods,� a slave-built mountain that was once topped by stone statues of the gods. Many are missing their bodies, the heads having been broken off during a period of iconoclasm. The eastern side matches, but the statues are in better repair and have Greek writing on the back.

 Fethiye is a city and district of Muğla Province in the Aegean region of Turkey. Modern Fethiye is located on the site of the ancient city of Telmessos, the ruins of which can be seen in the city, e.g. the Hellenistic theatre by the main quay. Telmessos was the most important city of Lycia, with a recorded history starting in the 5th century BC.

Fethiye was formerly known as Makri while it received a considerable amount of Turkish population from the Greek Islands and mainland Greece under the terms of the 1923 exchange of populations between Greece and Turkey, the Greeks deported from the area founded the town of Nea Makri in Greece. Fethiye has experienced many earthquakes.

Fethiye is one of Turkeyïs well-known tourist centres and is especially popular during the summer. The Fethiye Museum, which is very rich in ancient and more recent artifacts, displays and testifies to the successive chain of civilizations that existed in the area, starting with the ancient Lycians.

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